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   Andrew Bradford​

The story of Charlie and Kathy Bradford​

Reflections on being an undergraduate in my seventies

In July, just one month before my seventy-third birthday, I heard that I’d been awarded my BA in History from Birkbeck, University of London. A ‘second-class upper division’ (or 2.1) to be precise. So, my student career is over. I can honestly say that I’ve thoroughly enjoyed the experience and met many really interesting people of all ages who have come from many countries to teach or learn in London. How lucky we are to live so close to such a dynamic, cosmopolitan city.

Of course, the whole learning process was disrupted by Covid. In March 2020, towards the end of my second year, teaching moved online, and stayed that way until the end of my third and final year. I know that the teaching staff moved heaven and earth to make the process of mass online learning as fruitful as they could, but it’s just not the same from the student perspective. Online learning is a solitary experience. The main thing that you miss is chatting with fellow students before and after the lecture. From the teachers’ perspective, it must be even more frustrating as the teacher has so few body language clues about how his or her message is getting across. In theory, this year’s graduates should be attending a graduation ceremony in November, but we don’t know whether that too will be forced online. I will be really disappointed if it is.

In the first year of the course, students choose to study history by period, and there are nine periods to choose from, from classical times to the twentieth century, I chose to study three periods of world history covering from 1500 to the present day. My main interest is twentieth-century history, but I also thoroughly enjoyed learning about the early modern world (from 1500 to 1789), which is of course the period when Europeans first encountered other civilisations. Spaghetti Bolognese is a quintessentially European staple, but what would it taste like without pasta - from China - or tomatoes and chilli peppers - from the Americas - or basil - from Africa? What would be left on the plate?

In return for the indigenous Americans introducing us Europeans to tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, maize, and a whole host of other food staples, we gave them horses, which they found quite useful; but we also introduced them to measles and influenza, which may have killed more than forty million of them. If that wasn’t enough, we then sent thirteen million Africans to the Americas to be enslaved, but several million of them never arrived on American shores, because the journey was so dangerous. So much modern history is about slavery and genocide that it was a great relief to choose, as one of my second-year modules, a course called ‘Being Good in the Modern Age’ which is history of altruism and morality. This course began by examining why the Enlightenment philosophers considered kindness and politeness to be important, and went on to cover, inter-alia, the campaign to abolish slavery, the campaigns of the nineteenth century feminists, and, from the twentieth century, the disability rights movement, environmentalism, and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. I think that if I had to choose the course that I enjoyed the most, it would be this one.

In the third and final year I wrote my dissertation. Those of you that are already familiar with my blog  will know that one of my interests is disability rights, and that I have written the life stories of my parents, both of whom were disabled by polio as young children. So, you won’t be surprised at my choice of research project, which was a study of the foundation of the British Polio Fellowship in 1939 and its work between 1939 and 1970. This charity was a self-help movement which in many ways was years ahead of its time; as most charities with this kind of ethos did not emerge until the 1960s. Writing a dissertation during various stages of lockdown is not to be recommended; the library that holds most of the relevant material for a dissertation about polio is the Wellcome Library in Central London, but at no point when I was working on this project was this library open to new readers. Other students will have had similar problems, so I guess we’re all in the same boat. Anyway, these are trivial problems compared to what many other people have had to endure during the pandemic. At least it was my final year of university that was disrupted. I feel a lot of sympathy for those eighteen-year-olds who had to endure the stress of the 2020 A-level examinations fiasco, and then go into a university hall of residence to be solely taught online. They deserved better, and it’s not the fault of the colleges that things weren’t better for them.

The question that I’m asked most often is what next? Am I interested in a master’s degree? I have to say that the answer is no. There is no government funding for the over -sixties to go further, and while there are scholarships, I think that there are many younger people who deserve them more than I do. I will carry on writing and start to update my seriously unloved and dated blog more often, starting now. But would I recommend going to Uni to other seventy-somethings. You bet I would! 


Polio eradication now claims more lives than the disease itself

Posted on February 19, 2013 at 5:25 AM Comments comments (2)

Since the middle of December, at least twenty-five people taking part in polio eradication campaigns have been murdered by Islamist insurgents in Pakistan and Nigeria. A few of these were foreign aid workers, but most of them were local health workers and volunteers. During the same period only two new cases of the disease itself have been reported worldwide. So what does this mean for the final stages of the thirty- year old campaign to eradicate polio?


The recent assassinations of polio immunisers


On December 18 four women and one man were attacked by gunmen in three separate incidents in Karachi, Pakistan's largest city, and a woman was killed in the north-western city of Peshawar. Peshawar lies close to the tribal areas, and is a haven for the Taliban and other militants who ordered a ban on polio vaccinations in June.



On January 1 in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (the same conservative province where last October militants seriously wounded 15-year-old Malala Yousufzai, the outspoken young activist for girls’ education) gunmen on motorcycles sprayed a van carrying employees from a community centre with bullets, killing six women and one man. The victims were killed on their way home from a community centre where they were had been vaccinating children at a medical clinic and primary school. Their driver was injured but a young child was removed from the van by the assassins before they gunned the rest of the occupants down.


This month at least twelve women who were taking part in a polio vaccination drive have been shot and killed in northern Nigeria, where women volunteers often go from house to house to carry out the vaccinations as Muslim families feel more comfortable allowing women inside their homes than men. It also signalled a new wave of anger targeting immunisation drives in Nigeria, where clerics once claimed the vaccines were part of a Western plot to sterilize young girls.


The first attack saw gunmen arrive by three-wheel taxis and open fire. At least eight female vaccinators died in that attack, witnesses said. The second attack, saw another four people killed. The witnesses spoke on condition of anonymity out of fear of angering the radical sect known as Boko Haram. Boko Haram, whose name means "Western education is sacrilege" in the Hausa language, has been behind a series of violent attacks across northern Nigeria as part of its fight against the country's weak central government. It is blamed for killing at least 792 people last year, including a single attack in Kano last January that killed at least 185.


Suspicion of Western motives


Some communities have long-held beliefs that the motives of the polio vaccinators are not benign. In South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa militants have been spreading paranoid conspiracy theories about vaccines for years. Parents and families have been told that they are pointless, poisonous, covert shields for nefarious government agendas meant to do children harm. In 2003, a group of imams in the Nigerian state of Kano began preaching against polio vaccination, contending that what purported to be a protective act was actually a covert campaign by Western powers to sterilize and kill Muslim children. The president of Nigeria’s Supreme Council for Sharia Law told the BBC: “There were strong reasons to believe that the polio immunisation vaccine was contaminated with anti-fertility drugs,...certain virus that cause HIV/AIDS, ....with Simian virus that are likely to cause cancers.”


The Hunt for bin Laden and the covert operators who posed as vaccinators


Such accusations undoubtedly caused years of delay to polio eradication, but by the end of 2010 the End polio Now Campaign truly felt that it had succeeded in winning over hearts and minds in the last three countries where polio was still endemic - Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Then in 2011, according to The Guardian and The New York Times the CIA decided to use a fake vaccination program for Hepatitis B in the hunt for Osama bin Laden. The CIA needed to prove that the family in the compound in Abbottobad were the bin Ladens, and the idea was that a local doctor would somehow obtain DNA samples from children in the compound while they were being vaccinated, and these samples could then be compared with the DNA of Bin Laden's sister, who died in America in 2010.


There is no evidence the “vaccinations” produced DNA that helped identify bin Laden. The physician named in the article has been arrested by the Pakistani security forces, and the CIA has understandably refused any comment. But the allegation that a vaccine program was not what it seemed — that it was not only suspect, but justifiably suspect — has been very widely reported.


This is truly awful. The use of a vaccination campaign as part of a covert espionage operation, and the subsequent discovery of the fact that a campaign has been used in this way has played into to the hands of the most paranoid believers in conspiracy theories.


Thirty years ago, when End polio Now began, there were over 350,000 new cases every year in over twenty countries, this declined to 222 cases in five countries last year. A decade ago, Nigeria was forced to suspend polio vaccination for almost a year because of these paranoid rumours. This sparked an explosion of polio cases, not just in Nigeria, but in 20 other countries that previously had been declared polio-free. Let us hope that this doesn't happen again.